A large number of cylindrical laser processing applications program the laser writing campaign as if the two axes are both, in fact, linear in nature. In other words, the cylindrical pattern is ‘unrolled’ to make the shape a more typical flat workpiece. While this technique might ease the motion control programming burden, often the resulting pattern cycle time suffers due to the many directional changes the rotary axis, in particular, must undergo during laser processing.
Technical article: distributed energy resources present new challenges for protection systems download
Several national and international agreements strive for a decrease in carbon dioxide emissions. For example, the European 20/20/20 targets demand a reduction of the greenhouse gas emissions in the European Union of at least 20 per cent below 1990 levels, 20 per cent of the energy consumption to come from renewable resources and a 20 per cent reduction in primary energy use to be achieved by improving energy efficiency. Ambitious goals such as these are about to challenge and change ...
Spatial resolution is also known as the instantaneous field of view (IFOV) or spot size. The limitations of the spatial resolution are due to the size and expense of the focal plane array (FPA). The FPA of many moderately priced cameras will have an array of 320 x 240 or 160 x 120 detectors. As IRISS explains here, this may make it difficult to determine the temperature of small targets at a long distance.
EtherNet/IP is a communications protocol developed by Rockwell Automation, and is currently managed by the Open DeviceNet Vendors Association (ODVA). It is designed for industrial automation applications. The Aerotech Ensemble and Soloist controllers have an EtherNet/IP plugin that can be installed. The controllers have four tasks. This plugin runs on Task 3 of the controller. It also takes up the Talk 4 slot for communications. This is not inherent in the interface. Therefore, user ...
Steve Cupples, managing director of Industrial Purification Systems (IPS), together with John A Lewis, microbiologist and group director of Waterman Environmental Group, and Chris Mutch, managing director of M & S Water Services and M & S Water Services (Envirotec), discuss why industry is still prepared to accept a poor quality of process water filtration, the risks of not doing so and why advanced media filtration technology is the answer.
Hydraulic motors and pumps are used in a variety of environments. These environments can be damaging to shaft seals due to dirt particles penetrating the shaft sealing area. This will begin to erode the elastomer, altering the shaft surface finish in the sealing area, and seal failure will eventually occur. Replacing the seal requires removing the pump/motor, disassembling and repairing it and reinstallation. The result? Significant system downtime increasing operating expense.
Again this year Industry 4.0 will be the focus topic of many a seminar, conference and exhibition. In this article, Justin Leonard, director at igus, asks: ‘Will the “smart factory” concept ever become reality?’
This paper from Renishaw describes the operational principles behind Renishaw’s interferometric angular optics and how they can be used to measure pitch or yaw errors in a linear axis, the angular accuracy of a rotary axis or surface flatness. It examines the various error sources that can affect the accuracy of measurement and the angular optics hardware options available from Renishaw, and how they have been optimised to address these error sources.
According to Peter Swanson, managing director at Intertronics, the lubrication of mechanical and electromechanical assemblies should be a precise science, with applied material volume and placement accuracy critical to effectiveness. No one expects the control buttons in their car to leave grease on their fingers. Operators of precision equipment do not expect to find their parts contaminated by lubrication from the bearings.
Manufacturers have used infrared (IR) windows in motor control centres (MCCs) and electric switchgear for more than two decades. This Tech Byte from IRISS presents some of the IR lens materials that are used.
Modern protection and automation systems for electrical power systems are increasingly using communication protocols to transfer information. In the mid-term, more and more hybrid systems and systems distributed across large distances will be implemented. In this context, hybrid means that protection and automation systems will operate simultaneously with classical secondary quantities and conventionally wired binary status signals.
There are two basic requirements that machines, systems and devices must meet in order to succeed in the market: an extensive range of functions and high reliability. However, today these two factors only allow very little scope for differentiation. Increasingly, machine and device manufacturers face the question of how to achieve a competitive advantage on the market, apart from price. One common approach is to differentiate into the product design, handling and user interface.
This paper describes the operational principles behind Renishaw’s XR20-W rotary-axis calibration system and how it can be used ‘on axis’ to calibrate axes of rotation. It examines the various error sources that affect the accuracy of measurement and describes how the system has been designed, and should be used, in order to minimise such errors. It concludes with a section describing how the XR20-W system can be used ‘off axis’ to calibrate fourth and fifth axes on CNC machines.
Fragility increases proportionally to the ratio of the diameter to thickness. If thickness stays the same as the diameter increases, so does the fragility factor. This Tech Byte from IRISS explains how to calculate the minimum thickness of a window required to withstand a pressure difference.
According to IRISS, it is vital that you understand emissivity and how to set-up your thermal imaging camera. In this technical article, the company offers a simple way to check the transmission rate of any infrared window, which it calls ‘the coffee cup test’